RESOURCES

TitleBriefFurther detailsAuthorDoc. TypeCategoryTopicTagsDownload
Commercial Opportunities in Heating & CoolingAddress thermal networks: what are they, their benefits, and examples of thermal networks in practice in North America and Europe.

Rapidly growing and effective routes for heat networks to market. This is explored by examining the city of Helsingborg, Rotterdam, Bruges, Humber, and London. The case studies highlight different approaches and involvement from various stakeholders and valuing different stages of development while understanding what’s in demand with driving forces and trends.

Sara Malmgren, Peter Anderberg, Jesper Baaring, Koen van Eig, Tom Prinzie, Dave Robinson, Tony Neul, James McIntosh, James Beal Presentation from Heat Academy International case studies, feasibility assessment, Development, DE planning & developmentcase studies, development, methods, municipality, planning, 2020Download
Why Heat Networks WorkExploring the pathways and benefits of decarbonising heat in communities through case studies from Europe and Canada

Case studies of Helsingborg, Sweden, Markham, Canada, and City of Stoke-on-Trent, UK are explored. These three cities are at different stages of distributed energy networks. District heating in Helsingborg is a data driven business and has been in development since 1965 with strong organic growth and customer relations. Canada and the UK are not as developed as Sweden when it comes to DE networks. Nonetheless there is an understanding of its benefits. Energy in silos cannot adapt, whereas networks provide scale.

Fernando Carou, Goran Skoglund, Jesper Baaring, Bruce Ander, Andrew Briggs, Sebastien Danneels, Peter Anderberg, Mathias BengtssonPresentation from Heat Academy International & Stoke on Trent Collegecase studies, Planning, District Heatingcase studies, development, methods, municipality, planning, 2020Download
Getting to Net Zero: Decarbonizing Heating & Cooling (Session 1B)QUEST questions that are covered:
  • Who and what does it take to make district energy systems happen?
  • How to mobilize stakeholders?

This presentation takes a deep dive into the UK context and trends exploring where the UK is at the moment and where their priorities are for the future. Covered topics include heat network market and decarbonisation market and its opportunities, the government focus, project economics, as well as key learnings and key stakeholder.

Kristina Keighren, Peter Anderberg, George Dobson, Bruce Ander, Tanja Groth, Herbert Sinnockm Janie Stephen, Fernando CarouPresentation from Heat Academy International case studies, Planning, District Heatingcase studies, development, methods, municipality, planning, 2020Download
Getting to Net Zero: Decarbonizing Heating & Cooling (Session 1A)QUEST questions that are covered:
  • Why is decarbonizing heating and cooling a top priority?
  • Why are thermal networks required?
  • What are the barriers to implementing thermal networks?

Case studies exploring options and strategies in the UK, Canada, Sweden. Municipal case studies touch on four municipal investment pillars of financial performance, economic development, environmental performance, and community energy resiliency. Examples include decarbonizing buildings, lower $/tCO2, and the ability to access large renewable sources. 

Christina Keighren, Peter Anderberg, Herbert Sinnock, Bruce Ander, Fernando Carou, Lars HenrikssonPresentation from Heat Academy International case studies, Planning, District Heatingcase studies, development, methods, municipality, planning, 2020Download
District Energy Systems - Canada’s Missing Infrastructure for Enabling Low Carbon FuelsComparisons between Swedish, Danish, and Canadian energy consumption and district energy systems

The highest GG emissions in Canada are coming from Transportation, Oil & Gas, and Agriculture & Waste. Further comparisons are made between GHG emission in Canada and the EU as well as the forest sector in both Canada and Austria.

Jamie Stephen, PhD Presentation from Heat Academy International & Torchlight Bioresourcescase studies, Planning, District Energymunicipality, case studies, planning, development, methods, 2020Download
District Energy Heat Policies to Enable the Green Economic RecoveryBuilding Back Better with DE: Heat Policies to Enable the Green Economic Recovery - What is a ‘green heat policy’ and why is it important - When it comes to heat, should we regulate buildings or neighbourhoods? - A vision for heat in Canada in 2050

5 KEY TAKEAWAYS
1. Elevate the conversation around building heat (in DE areas) from the building scale to the district scale (low carbon DE can be a key part of green buildings, zero-carbon buildings and deep green retrofits)
2. As we transition to carbon-based codes, ensure full recognition of the benefits of low carbon district energy are incorporated (address metric, boundary, hierarchy, allocation)
3. As we turn towards regulating existing buildings consider the trade-offs between building scale v district-scale measures and benefits that could be gained from looking at heat from city perspective
4. If when COVID 19 recovery measures come, be ready with a plan, and know how it stacks up (in terms of $/tonne, incremental co-benefits for DE) with other means of decarbonizing the economy
5. We need to start a serious conversation about using waste (MSW and biomass) for heat

Gerard MacDonald (Reshape Strategies)Presentation from Reshape Strategiesprocess, vision, Heat Policies to Enable the Green Economic RecoveryDistrict heating, economic costs & benefits, economic impact, Energy efficiency, environmental impact, low-carbon energy, 2020Download
Trading thermal energy with metersTrading thermal energy with meters considering the Legal requirements of the Weights and Measures Act

Definition of trade: Heat sold on the basis of measurements fall under this act – Context of money exchange.
The weights and measures act governs trade measurement devices and commodities.
All trade measurement devices must be an approved design by Measurements Canada (MC) and inspected by MC before they are used in trade.
Approved meter:
– Starting now and best to contact the manufacturer
– Need to have a written contract indicating meter is not fully approved – and this has a time limit of 3 years
Heating and cooling are both subject to the requirements.

from Paige Vinten, Senior Program Officer, Measurement Canada in Innovation, Science and Economic Development (ISED) CanadaPresentation from Measurement Canadaprocess, public policy, Trading thermal energyheat distribution, Renewable thermal energy, 2020Download
District Energy considerations in COVID-19 recoveryLetter to the Minister of Environment and Climate Change: District Energy considerations in COVID-19 recovery

On April 17th, QUEST, the International District Energy Association and Enwave submitted a letter to The Honourable Jonathan Wilkinson, Minister of Environment and Climate Change, regarding District Energy considerations in COVID-19 economic recovery planning. The letter explained that to enable Canada’s energy transition, the deployment of district energy should be encouraged. District energy systems across Canada help municipalities become more resilient, reduce carbon emissions and generate economic stimulus.

Robert P. Thornton, President & CEO at IDEA, Tonja Leach, Executive Director at QUEST, Carlyle Coutinho, President & COO at EnwaveLetter to Ministerprocess, finance, public policy, vision, Recovery planningeconomic costs & benefits, economic impact, energy management, Policy recommendations, project development, 2020Download
Innonoative Approaches to Low-Carbon Urban Systems: A Case Study of Vancouver's Neighbourhood Energy UtilityA document outlining Vancouver's Neighbourhood Energy Utility (NEU), providing a basis for replication of the project.

This case study explores the background/context, initial feasibility assessment, environmental (GHG) metrics, financial model, governance model, economic impacts, and scalability/replicability of the NEU project. This includes technological information on the DE proejct at Southeast False Creek and financial metrics of the project.

Marc Lee, Canadian Centre for Policy AlternativesCase studycase studies, process, feasibility assessment, public policy, technology, CHP, heat recovery, Project planning & expansionCHP, economic impact, Land-use planning, Project expansion, waste-to-heat, 2020Download
Neighbourhood Energy in Vancouver -Strategic Approach and GuidelinesA presentation of the approaches and guidelines for upgrading and expanding the neighbourhood energy initiative (a DE initiative) in Vancouver.

This presentation outlines the Neighbourhood Energy initiative in Vancouver. This includes an analysis of historical data from the project, international research of similar NE initiatives, and strategies for expanding the project and reducing its carbon footprint. These strategies include technological, land use planning, and policy recommendations. The presentation culminates in the Energy Centre Guidelines, whose focus is on the following objectives: climate protection, air quality, neighbourhood fit, sustainability of fuel source, and community engagement.

Brian Crowe, Engineering Services Municipal staff presentation; Planning reportprocess, feasibility assessment, public policy, DE planning & developmentcommunity engagement, guidelines, Land-use planning, low-carbon energy, neighbourhood energy, 2020Download
Community Energy: Planning, Development & Delivery - Strategies for Thermal NetworksA guide for public sector project managers to develop the commercial approach of private developers to create financially sustainable DE projects.

This guide is intended for use by elected municipal officials, government energy, economic development and sustainability officials, and land-use planners, who can be project champions or sponsors. This guide will help land-use planners and project proponents, both public and private, with: energy mapping, building energy use, identifying DE opportunities, delivering financially stable energy projects, and understanding all of the stages in developing an energy project.

Michael King and Brad Bradford for IDEAPublic project managementprocess, building a business case, feasibility assessment, DE planning & developmentcommercial approach, energy mapping, Land-use planning, project financing, stages of development, 2020Download
Design Guidelines for District Energy-Ready BuildingsInformation to help building developers/owners/architects/engineers design buildings with the capacity to support district energy systems in the future.

This document provides information to building developers and owners, architects, and engineers to design buildings that are district energy-ready (DE-ready). DE-ready is defined as having a mechanical and building design that makes a building ready to connect to a future district energy system (DES) when it becomes available.

Fernando Carou, P.EngBuilding designprocess, integration, Preemptive designanticipatory, architecture, DE-ready, future-ready, 2020Download
District Heating Network OperationCost information and operational advice for district heating pipelines.

This report compiles experience from the operation of district heating pipelines over many years. In Part A important cost factors for the operation as well as the operating costs themselves are compared. Practical help for pipeline operation is given in Part B.

Dr.-Ing. Frieder Schmitt & Dipl.-Ing. Heinz-Werner Hoffmann; published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgrammePlanning toolprocess, building a business case, feasibility assessment, technology, piping network, District heating Costs, operations and maintenance, reference guide, 2020Download
Heating Our CommunitiesTechnological and policy recommendations for local governments to enable sustainable thermal energy procurement.

This report explores various mechanisms local governments can leverage to integrate sustainable thermal energy solutions in their jurisdictions. These include political mechanisms, such as bylaws and policies, recommendations for how to get started, and five highlighted technologies, which include district heating, biomass & biogas, ground-, air- & water-source heat pumps, heat recovery, and solar energy.

Community Energy AssociationPlanning toolprocess, feasibility assessment, public policy, technology, bioenergy, geothermal, heat recovery, solar, Sustainable thermal energyair-source heat pumps, biomass & biogas, District heating, ground-source heat pumps, heat recovery, Policy recommendations, solar energy, water-source heat pumps, 2020Download
Small Scale Biomass District Heating GuideA guide for developing biomass district heating systems for small communities.

The purpose of this Guide is to support the growing number of small communities across British Columbia interested in making a business case for biomass district heating. There may be substantial benefits for communities that approach local energy projects having developed an integrated strategy on clean energy, energy independence, and the transition to a green economy. The “Small-scale Biomass District Heating Guide” is written primarily for local governments and First Nations elected officials and staff to support an active local government and band role in the development of clean energy and a green economy. The scale of district heating being considered in this guide is approximately 150kW to 3MW.

Community Energy AssociationPlanning toolprocess, feasibility assessment, public policy, technology, bioenergy, Biomass district heatingBiomass, community energy planning, Small community, utility development, 2020Download
Small Scale District Heating HandbookA guide for developing small-scale district heating systems, with emphasis on the various project elements that affect planning and development.

This handbook is a companion piece to the “Small-Scale Biomass District Heating Guide,” which provides a high level overview of DH project elements according to developmental STAGES, from DH project conception through to utility development. This handbook provides a more detailed focus on considerations associated with each project ELEMENT.

Community Energy AssociationPlanning toolprocess, feasibility assessment, public policy, District heatingcommunity energy planning, distribution, energy centre, financing & government, fuel supply, regulation & policy, Small community, utility development, 2020Download
Commuity Energy Development Guide (Canadian Version)A guide for those involved in energy project development, primarily district energy and CHP, that presents the information needed to create and seize opportunities for DE/CHP projects.

This guide is intended for use by elected municipal officials,government energy, economic development and sustainability officials, and land-use planners, who can be project champions or sponsors. This guide will help land-use planners and project proponents, both public and private, to: understand and create or influence energy maps and other information for use in an official plan or secondary plan; gain an understanding of energy use in buildings and developments; recognize where there are opportunities for district energy projects, and understand the value of incorporating thermal energy considerations in planning efforts; translate energy opportunities into financially sustainable and deliverable projects; understand the stages of developing an energy project and who is involved in each stage.

King, M. & Bradford, B.; published by the International District Energy Association (IDEA)Planning toolprocess, building a business case, feasibility assessment, technology, CHP, District heating & CHPcommunity energy planning, energy mapping, project development, project financing, 2020Download
Stakeholder Engagement Guide with Worksheets: District Energy SystemsA guide for municipalities to develop a strategy for stakeholder engagement when building a District Energy project.

This guide is intended to assist Municipalities in developing their local Stakeholder Engagement strategies when considering District Energy. This Guide, with Worksheets and samples of some existing stakeholder communication products from municipalities, is based on the fundamental principles for community engagement, and has been developed as a starting point for Municipalities to utilize, or adapt, when they decide to proceed with development of a District Energy strategy.

NRCan-CanmetENERGYPlanning toolcase studies, community engagement, Stakeholder engagementcommunity energy planning, consultation, municipality, Stakeholder engagement, urban planning, 2020Download
Building Conversion Guide: Steam to Hot WaterA guide for converting existing heating systems to enable a connection to a district heating system.

This guide reviews methods to convert existing heating systems so they can be connected to a hot water district energy system. It applies to existing buildings currently connected to a steam based DE system, or heated independently with a boiler plant. The guide does not address general aspects of building system design and installation.

NRCan-CanmetENERGYImplementation toolprocess, integration, District heatingconversion methods, District heating, retrofit, 2020
Sustainable District Cooling GuidelinesA detailed report summarizing considerations, recommendations, and case studies of district cooling projects.

A detailed report outlining guidelines for developing a district cooling system, including: the benefits and justifications for district cooling; the developmental pathway, which includes guidelines for building a business case, conducting a feasibility assessment, technical requirements for project development, construction considerations, and operations considerations; multiple energy source options; case studies of best practice examples; design recommendations; operations and maintenance recommendations; a quick cooling requirement calculation method; innovative district cooling concepts; business models; and the role of the public sector in a project.

Calderoni, M; et. al.; Published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgramPlanning toolcase studies, process, building a business case, feasibility assessment, technology, geothermal, District heatingbusiness case, construction, district cooling, feasibility assessment, guideline, operations recommendation, 2020Download
Transformation Roadmap from High to Low Temperature District Heating SystemsA report exploring the ongoing transition from third to fourth generation district heating systems. Primarily considers current DH system characteristics and technological trends to form predictions of future DH system parameters and metrics.

This international research project has been focusing on identification of early and vital information about the transformation to a future fourth generation of district heating technology from previous technology generation shifts, current generation experiences, and early research attempts for this new district heating technology. Every new technology generation for district heating has been characterized by lower distribution temperatures in the thermal grids, revealing that the temperature levels in these grids are important performance indicators. This conclusion is also valid for the new fourth generation, aiming at even lower temperatures in the thermal grids.

Averfalk, H.; et. al.; published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgramForecastinglow temperature DE, piping network, District heatingDH system parameters, district heating transition, Fourth generation district heating, low temperature distribution, thermal grid, 2020Download
Smart use as the missing link in district energy develoment: a user-centered approach to system operation and managmentA report presenting a supervisory control system for smart energy homes that will enable efficient consumer behaviour.

A research report presenting the notion of a supervisory control system for smart homes to enable improved residential energy efficiency. The supervisory control system also provides the district energy supplier with data to facilitate energy consumption forecasting. The end goal of this system is to act as a catalyst for creating more efficient energy consumers by having them adopt efficient behaviour due to adapting to the system and the changes that it implements. Includes results from a prototype test of the system’s user interface in Samsoe, Denmark.

Renstrom, S.; et. al; published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgramImplementation toolcase studies, metering, Smart homeconsumer behaviour, control system, Energy efficiency, energy management, SCADA, smart home, 2020Download
Governance Models and Strategic Decision-making Processes for Deploying Thermal GridsPolicy, finance, and technology best practice guidance for thermal sector of municipalities by leveraging district energy as a solution.

This publication is among the first to provide concrete policy,finance and technology best practice guidance on addressing the heating and cooling sectors in cities through energy efficiency improvements and the integration of renewables. The recommendations have been developed in collaboration with 45
“champion” cities, all of which use modern district energy, and 11 of which have set targets for either carbon neutrality or a 100 per cent renewable energy supply. This report is also the first to consolidate data on the multiple benefits that cities, countries and regions have achieved through the use of modern district energy,in an effort to support evidence-based policy recommendations and to raise awareness of the significance of the heating and cooling sectors, which have been insufficiently addressed in the climate and energy debate.

Rao, L.; et. al.; published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgramPlanning toolcase studies, finance, public policy, Municipal recommendationscarbon-neutral, district heating & cooling, fnance recommendation, Policy recommendation, technology best practices, 2020Download
Improved maintenance strategies for district heating pipelinesA framework for predicting technical status, maintenance needs and energy losses for DH pipelines.

This project provides a framework for forecasting future technical status, maintenance needs and energy losses for DH pipelines based on knowledge about present technical status, today’s maintenance needs and estimated future operating temperatures. Theoretical calculations and information from Korea and Norway DH-pipe networks were used to demonstrate the model.

Yarahmadi, N; Sallstrom, J.H., published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgramForecastingcase studies, process, feasibility assessment, District HeatingDistrict Heating pipelines, forecasting, maintenance, Modelling, 2020Download
District Heating Distribution in Areas With Low Heat Demand DensityProvides measures for improving the economy of heat distribution in low heat demand density areas.

The objective of this project is to propose and to analyse measures for improving the economy of heat distribution in areas with low heat demand density. The consequent application of these measures will not only reduce distribution costs but also the environmental impact of energy use in these areas.

Zinko, H (ed); et. al., published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgramPlanning toolcase studies, process, feasibility assessment, piping network, Low heat demand density heat distributiondistribution cost, economic costs & benefits, environmental impact, heat distribution, Low heat demand density, 2020Download
District Heating and Cooling Connection HandbookA handbook for engineers and consultants to aid with the design and implementation of retrofiting HVAC systems to operate on heated/cooled water from a district energy system.

This report is intended to assist engineers and consultants in designing and implementing conversions of building HVAC systems to accept chilled and hot water from district energy systems. Building types that are addressed include residential, commercial, institutional and industrial. The practical guidelines provided are based on extensive conversion and operating experience. As well as highlighting the most cost effective approach to conversions, the guidelines ensure that technically sound systems are built.

Skagestad, B; Mildenstein, P., published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgramPlanning toolintegration, Retrofitting HVACconversion, cost-effectiveness, engineering & consulting, HVAC, practical guide, retrofit, 2020Download
Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy SystemsA detailed report presenting the benefits of low temperature DH, district heating/cooling techniques, the technology's applications and implementation schemes at the community level, calculation tools for DH systems, and case studies. This includes technical background materials on the technologies and equipment used in DH systems.

This project, Annex TS1, was completed by an international consortium team led by Fraunhofer Institute for Wind and Energy System Technology Germany through the IEA-DHC technology collaboration programme. The IEA DHC Annex TS1 is a three year international research project which aims to identify holistic and innovative approaches to communal low temperature heat supply by using district heating. It is a framework that promotes the discussion of future but also existing heating networks with an international group of experts. The goal is to obtain a common development direction for the wide application of low temperature district heating systems in the near future. Background materials and cutting edge knowledge on district heating pipe systems, network designs, hygienic domestic hot water preparation in low temperature supply schemes, space heating controls and the integration of small scale decentralized heat sources is provided in the report for designers as well as decision makers in the building and district energy sector.

Schmidt, D.; Kallert, A. (eds); published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgramPlanning reportcase studies, technology, geothermal, heat recovery, low temperature DE, solar, wind, District heatingcommunity energy planning, district cooling, equipment specs, Low temperature district heating, 2020Download
Toward 4th Generation District Heating: Experience and Potential of Low-Temperature District HeatingA report discussing low-temperature district heating as an economically and environmentally beneficial solution, including various successful use cases.

This project was completed by an international consortium team led by the Technical University of Denmark with funding from the IEA-DHC technology collaboration programme under research Annex X. This report describes the concept of low-temperature district heating (LTDH), collects and discusses successful examples of implementation LTDH in the building heating sector.The objective of this report is to raise awareness and provide insights that will stimulate the research, development and implementation of LTDH systems.

Dalla Rosa, A. (Technical University of Denmark), et. al, published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgrammePlanning reportcase studies, technology, geothermal, heat recovery, low temperature DE, solar, wind, Low temperature district heatingheat distribution costs, Legionella, lessons learned, Low temperature district heating, 2020Download
Economic and Design Optimization in Integrating Renewable Energy and Waste Heat with Distirct Energy SystemsA report explaining how to better integrate renewable thermal energy and waste heat resources into district energy systems, with limited mention of CHP.

This project was completed by an international consortium team led by FVB Energy Inc with funding from the IEA-DHC technology collaboration programme under research Annex X. It is intended to guide evaluation of options for integrating renewables and waste heat with existing or potential district energy systems (DES), addressing economic, design and operational issues, including fundamental issues relating to operating temperatures and availability. Case studies were developed to: illustrate a range of examples of integration of renewable thermal energy and waste heat resources in DES; illuminate key design issues associated with such integration; and describe solutions to addressing these issues.

Spurr, M (FVB ENERGY INC), et. al, published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgrammePlanning reportcase studies, bioenergy, heat recovery, solar, wind, Renewable thermal energy and waste heatefficiency, heat pumps, optimization, Renewable thermal energy, waste heat, 2020Download
Plan4DE: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Consumption by Optimizing Urban Form for District EnergyA report explaining how the MS Excel-based Plan4DE tool was developed, its features, and presenting use cases. The tool is meant to enable planners to understand land-use impacts on DE project development.

Plan4DE is a tool developed to enable planners to consider the impacts of land-use plans on the feasibility of district energy and to develop standard land-use patterns that will enable district energy. This report provides details on the tool’s development and features and examines application scenarios for its use. Plan4DE was developed by an international consortium team led by Sustainability Solutions Group (SSG) with funding from the IEA-DHC technology collaboration programme under research Annex XI.

Sustainability Solutions Group, published by IEA District Heating & Cooling Technology Collaboration ProgrammePlanning toolprocess, feasibility assessment, Land-use planningMicrosoft Excel, Modelling, Plan4DE, Urban DE, 2020Download

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