EV CHARGING STATIONS
HELPING MANAGE SYSTEM ENERGY LEVELS
Electric Vehicles operate using electricity as opposed to a fuel source (gas, diesel) and require electric charging stations, essentially batteries, at which they can charge. The EVs can be integrated into a smart grid to manage energy levels across a system.
Different types of chargers
There are three different types of EV chargers.
Level 1 chargers are the most basic and deliver the slowest charge. They have a plug that fits into a regular outlet and a connector on the other end to plug into the vehicle and are hence portable. A Level 1 charger that requires 120 volts takes around 20 hours to completely charge a typical battery, but this could change for different battery sizes and EV models.
Level 2 charging stations charge faster than Level 1 chargers. They need to be installed and are not portable. They require 240 volts and charge a typical battery fully in about four to five hours, but this could change for different battery sizes and EV models. They need a J1772 type connector.
Level 3 charging stations or Fast DC charging stations require 400 volts, charging a typical battery to about 80% in around 30 minutes, but this could change for different battery sizes and EV models. They work with vehicles that have the CHAdeMO or SAE Combo connector.
Encourages electric vehicle adoption in the region and may be used to promote electric transportation and infrastructure. Supporting infrastructure is one factor for customer adoption, an abundance of charging stations similar to gas stations would greatly influence consumer decisions for vehicles.
Can be managed by aggregators as a fleet to contribute to vehicle-to-grid programs. Aggregated EV chargers can create significant energy contributions to the grid, such as load-shifting or excess energy storage.
New programs such as PlugShare provide consumers with visibility on EV charger locations, which can help consumers adopt the technology, decreasing the amount of carbon emissions associated from vehicles.
The adoption of electric vehicles depends on policies and politics because the infrastructure is expensive to deploy. Government funding is likely required for a widespread deployment of EV chargers.
Permitting and regulatory approval is required to create designated EV parking spots.
Mass deployment of EVs may cause future congestion issues if not properly planned. Parking lots and space will need to be designed for EVs and their chargers. Additionally, large volumes of EVs will drastically change electricity demand. In particular, EV charging can be coincident with peak loading situations (charging during sports events, charging in the evening after work, etc.) and time series analysis is necessary to properly plan around these new loads.
INFLUENCING CHARGING BEHAVIOUR
Charging schedules are at the discretion of consumer choice unless otherwise designed. It is difficult to model and influence consumer behaviour for car charging. The ability to influence car charging behaviour could have a significant impact on energy demand, such as altering the typical hourly loading. This changes how the utility balances energy demand and whether they need new generation capacity.
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ADDRESS - YMCA OF GREATER TORONTO
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Attention: Alex Versluis, Senior Vice President, Property Management and Development